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Model description paper | 26 Jan 2016

S. Härer Lace Lining nbsp;leather Republiq Tan Boots Legioner Hiker up District Oxford Royal wXW4FzqxfF, M. Bernhardt , and K. Schulz S. Härer et al.
  • Institute of Water Management, Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering (IWHW), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria

Abstract. Terrestrial photography combined with the recently presented Photo Rectification And ClassificaTIon SoftwarE (PRACTISE V.1.0) has proven to be a valuable source to derive snow cover maps in a high temporal and spatial resolution. The areal coverage of the used digital photographs is however strongly limited. Satellite images on the other hand can cover larger areas but do show uncertainties with respect to the accurate detection of the snow covered area. This is especially the fact if user defined thresholds are needed, e.g. in case of the frequently used normalized-difference snow index (NDSI). The definition of this value is often not adequately defined by either a general value from literature or over the impression of the user, but not by reproducible independent information. PRACTISE V.2.1 addresses this important aspect and shows additional improvements. The Matlab-based software is now able to automatically process and detect snow cover in satellite images. A simultaneously captured camera-derived snow cover map is in this case utilized as in situ information for calibrating the NDSI threshold value. Moreover, an additional automatic snow cover classification, specifically developed to classify shadow-affected photographs, was included. The improved software was tested for photographs and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) as well as Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes in the Zugspitze massif (Germany). The results show that using terrestrial photography in combination with satellite imagery can lead to an objective, reproducible, and user-independent derivation of the NDSI threshold and the resulting snow cover map. The presented method is not limited to the sensor system or the threshold used in here but offers manifold application options for other scientific branches.

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This paper describes a new method to produce spatially and temporally calibrated NDSI-based...
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Upper material: Textile

Lining: Textile

Insole: Plastic

Sole: Synthetics

Padding type: Cold padding

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Heel type: Flat

Shoe fastener: Laces

Pattern: Print

Article number: PU115O03L-A11

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